Lectio Secunda

Quinque (5) Porci: or:
Some get to Market. Some get none.

[ Open the above in its own tab ]

Summary: The Romans didn’t know the truth about the founding of Rome: What Romulus and Remus didn’t do, the Etruscans did.

[ Open the above in its own tab ]


Now Let’s Think

Verbs: Last time we saw verbs ending in -it. They were singular. The subject of those verbs was singular. But when the subject is plural, the verbs must be plural too. To make the verbs plural, we change the ending -it to -erunt. But we do not care if the object is plural. That does not affect the verb.

To sum up: we have two verb endings so far: -it for singular: -erunt for plural.

Nouns: But on nouns we can have four different endings now. We can have singular or plural for the subject (nominative case). And we can have singular or plural for the object (objective case). We will not bother to learn the subject patterns today. But we could look at the object patterns.

We have several different types of nouns. Let us look at one of each family. We will give singular and plural objective case endings for each.

1 .2 .3 .
terram terrasporcum porcosurbem urbes

Therefore the endings are:

-am -as-um -os-em -es

Notice that some words are much longer in the objective case than they are in the nominative: for example

veritas veritátemurbs urbem

Adjectives: Words like magnus and parvus are adjectives. For the present, just be satisfied to get their meaning, which is easy.

Quod: Notice how quod was used. We have used it only in combinations such as these: he says that, or he thinks that. We call this one use of quod: the dixit quod pattern or the indirect statement. In it we tell, without quote marks, and in an inexact way, what someone says or thinks.

A Bit More Stew

Maria et Marcus vidérunt agnum. Agnus fuit in schola. Marcus et Maria dixérunt quod agnus fuit in schola. Vidérunt agnum in schola. Non vidérunt Colúmbum in schola. Non dixérunt quod Colúmbus fuit in terra Romána. Sed agnus exclamávit in schola. Agnus dixit: baa. Colúmbus dixit quod agnus dixit: baa. Porci non fuérunt in schola. Porci fuérunt in terra Romana. Porci dixérunt: oink. Porci dixérunt: oui! Porci non fuérunt albi. Porci fuérunt rotúndi. Hie porcus fuit in urbe. Agnus non dixit :oink. Colúmbus non dixit quod agnus dixit: oink. Colúmbus dixit quod agnus dixit: baa. Colúmbus veritátem dixit. Marcus dixit quod agnus dixit: oink. Marcus veritátem non dixit. Colúmbus non hábuit porcos. Agni venérunt in navem. Colúmbus amávit agnos. Colúmbus non amávit porcos. Columbus invénit agnos in América. Regína non fuit parva. Regína dedit pecúniam. Marcus amávit puéllam.

Tape Script

[ Open the above in its own tab ]

[ Open the above in its own tab ]

[ Open the above in its own tab ]